What are the 5G spectrum

What is frequency
Frequency – frequency is a number of repetition occur withing a time frame. Hertz is a measurement of frequency. For example 1MHz means  1 million cycle per second  and 1GHz is one billion cycle per second. Cycle mean pulse or wave pattern.

What is spectrum
 spectrum is range of radio frequency  assigned for mobile and other communication using air wave or wireless transmission. Band is particular range of frequency within spectrum. In general term spectrum is entire scope of the field while band is path / channels available which is used for communication.
3GPP standard define two frequency range FR.
FR1 =450 to 6000MHz
FR2= 24250 to 52600MHz

What are spectrum band
Spectrum band are divided in main three divisions for understanding purpose.
    1)   Up to 6GHz    which is known as sub6Ghz band.
    2)   6 to 24GHz   for understanding it is mid band.
   3)    24GHz to 80GHz and above known as mmWave band or millimeter wave band. In mmWave many free radio channel and unused band available.

What are 5G spectrum band
600Mhz, sub6GHz and millimeter wave mmWave above 24GHz are mainly used spectrum band for 5G new radio technology.  Real 5G technology will work in mmWave band.

5G NR sub6GHz spectrum band
Sub6 band also divided into three groups for understanding purpose.
  1) Low band up to 1GHz.
  2) 1 to 2.6GHz normal mid band under sub6GHz.
 3) 3.5GHz to 6GHz new mid band under sub6GHz spectrum this band also widely used in 5G.
Most of the 5G carrier use this low band and mid band for nation wide coverage. This band allows more coverage capacity. As signal frequency is low and so signal can travel long distance. So that we can stay in network all the time.
           Our radio channel are mostly work in frequency range up to 200MHz. telecommunication band starts from 600 onward precisely 800MHZ. 2.4GHz band is used by mobile communication along with  Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, cordless phone and many other electronic gadgets use this band so signal interference is more in 2.4GHz band and very less free channels are available. But above 2.4GHz to 5GHz there are more than 20 free channels are available which are used by 5G NR. But now wifi 802.11a use 5GHz while 802.11ac use below 6GHz and 802.11ad use upto 60GHz. So 2.4GHz spectrum may fine less interference in future.


5G new radio millimeter wave spectrum band
Spectrum above 24GHz frequency band are mmWave band which is core of 5G mobile communication. It provides very low latency, very high speed and wider capacity for various 5G services.

How spectrum allocation is done
            International telecommunication authority and regulatory body decide which spectrum will be used for particular communication.  Also develop standard for mobile communication. Then countrywide ministry and administrative body mainly formed for electronics telecommunication or broadcasting purpose will announce auction for spectrum band.  Government will generate revenue from action and also use it for better urban and rural communication. Before auction government provide temporary use of spectrum for trial and testing purpose.

Worldwide 5G spectrum test and performance
Maximum 5G test are carried out in sub6 GHz band and mmWave band. Among them 3.5 GHz, 4.5 GHz and 28 GHz are mostly used for trial purpose. As of now 80% 5G test are carried out on 1 to 6 GHz and 24 to 29.5GHz spectrum band. Most of the test got above 1Gbps speed and maximum speed achieved is 99Gbps. This is on trail platform only. In most of the test latency is below 10ms.

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